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The create_agent() function creates an agent object, which is used in a data quality reporting workflow. The overall aim of this workflow is to generate useful reporting information for assessing the level of data quality for the target table. We can supply as many validation functions as the user wishes to write, thereby increasing the level of validation coverage for that table. The agent assigned by the create_agent() call takes validation functions, which expand to validation steps (each one is numbered). This process is known as developing a validation plan.

The validation functions, when called on an agent, are merely instructions up to the point the interrogate() function is called. That kicks off the process of the agent acting on the validation plan and getting results for each step. Once the interrogation process is complete, we can say that the agent has intel. Calling the agent itself will result in a reporting table. This reporting of the interrogation can also be accessed with the get_agent_report() function, where there are more reporting options.


  tbl = NULL,
  tbl_name = NULL,
  label = NULL,
  actions = NULL,
  end_fns = NULL,
  embed_report = FALSE,
  lang = NULL,
  locale = NULL,
  read_fn = NULL



The input table. This can be a data frame, a tibble, a tbl_dbi object, or a tbl_spark object. Alternatively, an expression can be supplied to serve as instructions on how to retrieve the target table at interrogation-time. There are two ways to specify an association to a target table: (1) as a table-prep formula, which is a right-hand side (RHS) formula expression (e.g., ~ { <table reading code>}), or (2) as a function (e.g., function() { <table reading code>}).


A optional name to assign to the input table object. If no value is provided, a name will be generated based on whatever information is available. This table name will be displayed in the header area of the agent report generated by printing the agent or calling get_agent_report().


An optional label for the validation plan. If no value is provided, a label will be generated based on the current system time. Markdown can be used here to make the label more visually appealing (it will appear in the header area of the agent report).


A option to include a list with threshold levels so that all validation steps can react accordingly when exceeding the set levels. This is to be created with the action_levels() helper function. Should an action levels list be used for a specific validation step, the default set specified here will be overridden.


A list of expressions that should be invoked at the end of an interrogation. Each expression should be in the form of a one-sided R formula, so overall this construction should be used: end_fns = list(~ <R statements>, ~ <R statements>, ...). An example of a function included in pointblank that can be sensibly used here is email_blast(), which sends an email of the validation report (based on a sending condition).


An option to embed a gt-based validation report into the ptblank_agent object. If FALSE (the default) then the table object will be not generated and available with the agent upon returning from the interrogation.


The language to use for automatic creation of briefs (short descriptions for each validation step) and for the agent report (a summary table that provides the validation plan and the results from the interrogation. By default, NULL will create English ("en") text. Other options include French ("fr"), German ("de"), Italian ("it"), Spanish ("es"), Portuguese ("pt"), Turkish ("tr"), Chinese ("zh"), Russian ("ru"), Polish ("pl"), Danish ("da"), Swedish ("sv"), and Dutch ("nl").


An optional locale ID to use for formatting values in the agent report summary table according the locale's rules. Examples include "en_US" for English (United States) and "fr_FR" for French (France); more simply, this can be a language identifier without a country designation, like "es" for Spanish (Spain, same as "es_ES").


The read_fn argument is deprecated. Instead, supply a table-prep formula or function to tbl.


A ptblank_agent object.

Data Products Obtained from an Agent

A very detailed list object, known as an x-list, can be obtained by using the get_agent_x_list() function on the agent. This font of information can be taken as a whole, or, broken down by the step number (with the i argument).

Sometimes it is useful to see which rows were the failing ones. By using the get_data_extracts() function on the agent, we either get a list of tibbles (for those steps that have data extracts) or one tibble if the validation step is specified with the i argument.

The target data can be split into pieces that represent the 'pass' and 'fail' portions with the get_sundered_data() function. A primary requirement is an agent that has had interrogate() called on it. In addition, the validation steps considered for this data splitting need to be those that operate on values down a column (e.g., the col_vals_*() functions or conjointly()). With these in-consideration validation steps, rows with no failing test units across all validation steps comprise the 'pass' data piece, and rows with at least one failing test unit across the same series of validations constitute the 'fail' piece.

If we just need to know whether all validations completely passed (i.e., all steps had no failing test units), the all_passed() function could be used on the agent. However, in practice, it's not often the case that all data validation steps are free from any failing units.

While printing an agent will display the agent report in the Viewer, we can alternatively use the get_agent_report() to take advantage of other options (e.g., overriding the language, modifying the arrangement of report rows, etc.), and to return the report as independent objects. For example, with the display_table = TRUE option (the default), get_agent_report() will return a gt table object ("gt_tbl"). If display_table is set to FALSE, we'll get a data frame back instead.


A pointblank agent can be written to YAML with yaml_write() and the resulting YAML can be used to regenerate an agent (with yaml_read_agent()) or interrogate the target table (via yaml_agent_interrogate()). Here is an example of how a complex call of create_agent() is expressed in R code and in the corresponding YAML representation.

# R statement
  tbl = ~ small_table,
  tbl_name = "small_table",
  label = "An example.",
  actions = action_levels(
    warn_at = 0.10,
    stop_at = 0.25,
    notify_at = 0.35
  end_fns = list(
    ~ beepr::beep(2),
    ~ Sys.sleep(1)
  embed_report = TRUE,
  lang = "fr", 
  locale = "fr_CA"

# YAML representation
type: agent
tbl: ~small_table
tbl_name: small_table
label: An example.
lang: fr
locale: fr_CA
  warn_fraction: 0.1
stop_fraction: 0.25
notify_fraction: 0.35
- ~beepr::beep(2)
- ~Sys.sleep(1)
embed_report: true

In practice, this block of YAML will be shorter since arguments with default values won't be written to YAML when using yaml_write() (though it is acceptable to include them with their default when generating the YAML by other means). The only requirement for writing the YAML representation of an agent is having tbl specified as table-prep formula.

What typically follows this chunk of YAML is a steps part, and that corresponds to the addition of validation steps via validation functions. Help articles for each validation function have a YAML section that describes how a given validation function is translated to YAML.

Should you need to preview the transformation of an agent to YAML (without any committing anything to disk), use the yaml_agent_string() function. If you already have a .yml file that holds an agent, you can get a glimpse of the R expressions that are used to regenerate that agent with yaml_agent_show_exprs().

Writing an Agent to Disk

An agent object can be written to disk with the x_write_disk() function. This can be useful for keeping a history of validations and generating views of data quality over time. Agents are stored in the serialized RDS format and can be easily retrieved with the x_read_disk() function.

It's recommended that table-prep formulas are supplied to the tbl argument of create_agent(). In this way, when an agent is read from disk through x_read_disk(), it can be reused to access the target table (which may change, hence the need to use an expression for this).

Combining Several Agents in a multiagent Object

Multiple agent objects can be part of a multiagent object, and two functions can be used for this: create_multiagent() and read_disk_multiagent(). By gathering multiple agents that have performed interrogations in the past, we can get a multiagent report showing how data quality evolved over time. This use case is interesting for data quality monitoring and management, and, the reporting (which can be customized with get_multiagent_report()) is robust against changes in validation steps for a given target table.


Function ID


See also


# Let's walk through a data quality
# analysis of an extremely small table;
# it's actually called `small_table` and
# we can find it as a dataset in this
# package
#> # A tibble: 13 × 8
#>    date_time           date           a b             c      d e     f    
#>    <dttm>              <date>     <int> <chr>     <dbl>  <dbl> <lgl> <chr>
#>  1 2016-01-04 11:00:00 2016-01-04     2 1-bcd-345     3  3423. TRUE  high 
#>  2 2016-01-04 00:32:00 2016-01-04     3 5-egh-163     8 10000. TRUE  low  
#>  3 2016-01-05 13:32:00 2016-01-05     6 8-kdg-938     3  2343. TRUE  high 
#>  4 2016-01-06 17:23:00 2016-01-06     2 5-jdo-903    NA  3892. FALSE mid  
#>  5 2016-01-09 12:36:00 2016-01-09     8 3-ldm-038     7   284. TRUE  low  
#>  6 2016-01-11 06:15:00 2016-01-11     4 2-dhe-923     4  3291. TRUE  mid  
#>  7 2016-01-15 18:46:00 2016-01-15     7 1-knw-093     3   843. TRUE  high 
#>  8 2016-01-17 11:27:00 2016-01-17     4 5-boe-639     2  1036. FALSE low  
#>  9 2016-01-20 04:30:00 2016-01-20     3 5-bce-642     9   838. FALSE high 
#> 10 2016-01-20 04:30:00 2016-01-20     3 5-bce-642     9   838. FALSE high 
#> 11 2016-01-26 20:07:00 2016-01-26     4 2-dmx-010     7   834. TRUE  low  
#> 12 2016-01-28 02:51:00 2016-01-28     2 7-dmx-010     8   108. FALSE low  
#> 13 2016-01-30 11:23:00 2016-01-30     1 3-dka-303    NA  2230. TRUE  high 

# We ought to think about what's
# tolerable in terms of data quality so
# let's designate proportional failure
# thresholds to the `warn`, `stop`, and
# `notify` states using `action_levels()`
al <- 
      warn_at = 0.10,
      stop_at = 0.25,
    notify_at = 0.35

# Now create a pointblank `agent` object
# and give it the `al` object (which
# serves as a default for all validation
# steps which can be overridden); the
# static thresholds provided by `al` will
# make the reporting a bit more useful;
# we also provide a target table and we'll
# use `pointblank::small_table` 
agent <- 
    tbl = pointblank::small_table,
    tbl_name = "small_table",
    label = "An example.",
    actions = al

# Then, as with any `agent` object, we
# can add steps to the validation plan by
# using as many validation functions as we
# want; then, we use `interrogate()` to
# physically perform the validations and
# gather intel
agent <-
  agent %>% 
  col_exists(vars(date, date_time)) %>%
    regex = "[0-9]-[a-z]{3}-[0-9]{3}"
  ) %>%
  rows_distinct() %>%
  col_vals_gt(vars(d), value = 100) %>%
  col_vals_lte(vars(c), value = 5) %>%
    vars(d), value = vars(d),
    na_pass = TRUE
  ) %>%
    left = vars(a), right = vars(d),
    na_pass = TRUE
  ) %>%
# Calling `agent` in the console
# prints the agent's report; but we
# can get a `gt_tbl` object directly
# with `get_agent_report(agent)`
report <- get_agent_report(agent)
#> [1] "ptblank_agent_report" "gt_tbl"               "list"                

# What can you do with the report object?
# Print it from an R Markdown code
# chunk, use it in a **blastula** email,
# put it in a webpage, etc.

# From the report we know that Step
# 4 had two test units (rows, really)
# that failed; we can see those rows
# with `get_data_extracts()` 
agent %>% get_data_extracts(i = 4)
#> # A tibble: 2 × 8
#>   date_time           date           a b             c     d e     f    
#>   <dttm>              <date>     <int> <chr>     <dbl> <dbl> <lgl> <chr>
#> 1 2016-01-20 04:30:00 2016-01-20     3 5-bce-642     9  838. FALSE high 
#> 2 2016-01-20 04:30:00 2016-01-20     3 5-bce-642     9  838. FALSE high 

# We can get an x-list for the whole
# validation (8 steps), or, just for
# the 4th step with `get_agent_x_list()`
xl_step_4 <-
  agent %>% get_agent_x_list(i = 4)
# And then we can peruse the different
# parts of the list; let's get the
# fraction of test units that failed
#> [1] 0.15385

# Just printing the x-list will tell
# us what's available therein
#> ── The x-list for `small_table` ────────────────────────────────────── STEP 4 ──
#> $time_start $time_end (POSIXct [1])
#> $label $tbl_name $tbl_src $tbl_src_details (chr [1])
#> $tbl (spec_tbl_df, tbl_df, tbl, and data.frame)
#> $col_names $col_types (chr [8])
#> $i $type $columns $values $label $briefs (mixed [1])
#> $eval_error $eval_warning (lgl [1])
#> $capture_stack (list [1])
#> $n $n_passed $n_failed $f_passed $f_failed (num [1])
#> $warn $stop $notify (lgl [1])
#> $lang (chr [1])
#> ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

# An x-list not specific to any step
# will have way more information and a
# slightly different structure; see
# `help(get_agent_x_list)` for more info
# get_agent_x_list(agent)